What Is a Bladder Infection?

Bladder infection

A bladder infection is most often caused by a bacterial infection within the bladder. In people with weakened immune systems, yeast can cause bladder infections as well. A bladder infection is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI). This refers to an infection anywhere in the urinary tract, such as the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or the urethra. Most cases of bladder infections are acute, meaning they occur suddenly. Other cases may be chronic, meaning they recur over the long term. Early treatment is key to preventing the spread of the infection.

Urinary tract infection in children »

CAUSES

What causes a bladder infection?

Bacteria that enter through the urethra and move into the bladder cause bladder infections. Normally, the body removes the bacteria by flushing them out during urination. Still, bacteria can sometimes attach to the walls of the bladder and multiply quickly. This overwhelms the body’s ability to destroy them, resulting in a bladder infection.

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), most bladder infections are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli). This type of bacteria is naturally present in the large intestines. An infection can occur when bacteria from the stool get onto the skin and enter the urethra. In women, the urethra is short and the outside opening is not far from the anus, so bacteria can easily move from one body system to another.

SYMPTOMS

What are the symptoms of bladder infection?

The symptoms of a bladder infection vary depending on the severity. You’ll immediately notice changes during urination.

Some of the most common symptoms include:

  • pain or burning when urinating
  • cloudy or bloody urine
  • urinating more often than usual, which is called frequency
  • foul-smelling urine
  • a frequent sensation of having to urinate, which is called urgency
  • cramping or pressure in the lower abdomen or lower back

When bladder infections spread, they can also cause mid-back pain. This pain is associated with infection in the kidneys. Unlike muscular back pain, this pain will be persistent regardless of your position or activity. A kidney infection will often cause fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting. You’ll typically feel quite ill. Kidney infections are more serious than bladder infections and require urgent medical attention.

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RISK FACTORS

Who is at risk for a bladder infection?

Anyone can get bladder infections, but women are more prone to getting them than men. This is because women have shorter urethras, making the path to the bladder easier for bacteria to reach. Females’ urethras are also located closer to the rectum than men’s urethras. This means there is a shorter distance for bacteria to travel. As men age, the prostate can enlarge. This can cause blockages to the flow of urine and increase the likelihood of a man developing a UTI. UTIs tend to increase in men as they age.

Other factors can increase the risk of bladder infections for both men and women. These include:

  • advanced age
  • immobility
  • insufficient fluid intake
  • surgical procedure within the urinary tract
  • urinary catheter
  • urinary obstruction, which is a blockage in the bladder or urethra
  • urinary tract abnormality, which is caused by birth defects or injuries
  • urinary retention, which means difficulty emptying the bladder
  • narrowed urethra
  • enlarged prostate
  • bowel incontinence
  • pregnancy
  • diabetes
  • nervous system conditions that affect bladder function, like multiple sclerosis
  • weakened immune system

DIAGNOSIS

How is a bladder infection diagnosed?

A doctor can diagnose your bladder infection by performing a urinalysis. This is a test performed on a sample of urine to check for the presence of:

  • white blood cells
  • red blood cells
  • nitrites
  • bacteria

Your doctor may also perform a urine culture, which is a test to determine the type of bacteria in the urine causing the infection. Once the type of bacteria is known, it will be tested for antibiotic sensitivity to determine which antibiotic will best treat the infection.

TREATMENT

How is a bladder infection treated?

Bladder infections are treated with prescription medications to kill the bacteria (antibiotics) and medications that relieve pain and burning.

Medication

Oral antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria that are causing the bladder infection. If you’re experiencing pain and burning sensations, your doctor may also prescribe medication to relieve those symptoms. The most common medication for relieving the pain and burning associated with bladder infections is called phenazopyridine (Pyridium).

Home treatment

When you have a UTI, drinking plenty of fluids can help flush the bacteria out of your bladder. Water is best because it is free of caffeine and artificial sweeteners, which are known bladder irritants.

Concentrated cranberry solutions, juices, and extracts may have a role in preventing UTIs against the bacteria E. coli. But they should not be solely relied upon to treat an active infection. In a recent study published in Frontiers in Microbiology, cranberry juice did lower the number of bacteria in the bladder during an infection, but it did not cure the infection completely.

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